Peregrinus Cracoviensis, z. 23

Redaktorzy: Antoni Jackowski, Elżbieta Bilska-Wodecka, Izabela Sołjan,
Rok wydania: 2012
Język publikacji: polski

ISSN 1425-1922

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Apostoł wolności i godności człowieka. W 10. rocznicę pielgrzymki Jana Pawła II do Kazachstanu
Autor: ks. Jan Nowak
Strony: 5–16
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Apostle of freedom and human dignity. Tenth anniversary of the pilgrimage of John Paul II to Kazakhstan (SUMMARY) During his pilgrimage to Kazakhstan in September of 2001, the Pope expressed his solidarity with the Kazakh nation. He touched upon difficult historical issues and called upon the Kazakh people to respect its constituent ethnic groups and basic values and to draw upon the multicultural wealth of the nation. The Pope underscored the need to build a society based on unity and agreement. His main message was that God is the source of strength and hope.
„Duchowa pomoc" w podróży? – Indulgencje udzielane wiernym wspomagającym pielgrzymów i wędrowców na terenie średniowiecznej Polski
Autor: Wiktor Szymborski
Strony: 17–30
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Spiritual help? – indulgences granted to faithful who helped medieval travellers and pilgrims (SUMMARY) The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics of religiousness of society in medieval Poland on the basis of an analysis of indulgences granted to pilgrims. For this purpose, the form of indulgences given to faithful who supported medieval pilgrims is shown as well as changes occurring in their content over time. Analysis of all registered indulgences in medieval Poland (more than 1,600 documents) has shown that this type of an indulgence document was extremely rare in medieval Poland. Such documents are mentioned in manuscripts written by mendicants (Franciscans, Dominicans) and constituted privileges, indulgences granted by the papal chancery. Next, attention was paid to another type of indulgence granted by the papacy and medieval bishops to encourage members of the Church to help pilgrims. Pardons were also connected with pious acts such as building roads and bridges to help medieval travellers. Such cases were recorded in Silesia in the 15th century.
Koronacje papieskie (na mocy dekretu Stolicy Apostolskiej) wizerunków Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Polsce w latach 1990–2011
Autor: Franciszek Mróz, Łukasz Mróz
Strony: 31–50
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Papal coronations (by decree of the Holy See) of the painting of the Mother of God in Poland in 1990–2011 (SUMMARY) The coronation of miraculous images of the Mother of God is one of the expressions of reverence that the Catholic Church holds towards the Blessed Virgin Mary and is also a sign of gratitude for the grace and divine blessings received through her intercession. The paper analyzes the process of coronation of the miraculous images of the Mother of God in Poland in the years 1990–2011, as decreed by the Holy See. In the analyzed period, there were 89 acts of papal coronation of the images of the Mother of God (68 paintings, 1 icon, 1 wall painting). This also includes 12 repeat coronation acts. The largest number of papal coronations of the images of the Mother of God took place in 1997 (12 coronations, including one repeated coronation), 2000 (10 coronations) and 1991 (9 coronations, including 2 repeated coronations). The large number of coronations in the years 1991 and 1997 can be associated with the 4th and 6th visits to Poland by Pope John Paul II. In the analyzed period, the largest number of images of the Mother of God were crowned by: John Paul II – 22 images; Cardinal Józef Glemp, former Senior Cardinal of Poland – 16 (and 2 repeated coronations); and Archbishop Józef Kowalczyk, the current Senior Cardinal of Poland – 15 (and 3 repeated coronations). The largest number of coronations (11) during the years 1990–2011 occurred in the Diocese of Kraków. Other top locations were the dioceses of Częstochowa (6) and Ełk and Radom (5 each). Finally, thirteen images were crowned in the Polish Carpathian.
Sanktuarium Matki Boskiej Swarzewskiej jako miejsce kultu religijnego
Autor: Eugeniusz Rydz
Strony: 51–71
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Sanctuary of Our Lady of Swarzewo as a place of worship (SUMMARY) An inherent part of man's religious culture is the need to create places of worship – marking spaces in which one could effectively communicate with the deity. Sanctuaries are built by all ethnic groups and religious groups across the world. Places of worship have always played a major role in the development of civilization. They were an arena for sharing cultural values and a place for cementing social bonds. A place of religious worship is not only a place for interactions between people, but also transmits religious content to proximal and distal surroundings. The Sanctuary of the Queen of the Polish Sea in Swarzewo also serves this purpose. The village of Swarzewo is mentioned in historical documents dating back to 1340. It was established on the 16th of October, 1340 by an order of the Commander of the Teutonic Knights – Winnrich von Kniprode. The available source materials state that the first church was built in the first half of the fifteenth century, and its founders were, using a contemporary definition, a people of the sea. In the second half of the nineteenth century, it was decided to dismantle the church, and in its place, a new church was built in the years 1877–1988. The church still stands and is known as the Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is a church built in the neo-Gothic style with a solid brick face. The new church was solemnly consecrated on September 14, 1930 by Bishop Constantin Dominic on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the completion of the building. One of the most valuable elements of the Sanctuary of Swarzewo is the "Image Map" (Fig. 2). It shows the architecture of ships sailing in the mid-17th century, which can be interpreted as the ships making their way to the port of the Queen of the Seas. Pilgrims, having seen the enormity of the subjects painted on the side walls between the stained glass windows, finally reach the place that is most important – in front of the main altar in anticipation of the unveiling of the miraculous statue of the Queen of the Polish Sea. It is a three-dimensional sculpture depicting the Madonna and Child in a standing position, reaching a height of 66 cm. The Madonna is wearing a loose dress, coat and maforion on the head. On the heads of the two figures there are golden crowns. Two papal documents played an important role in the history of the Sanctuary of Swarzewo. On the 18th December, 1855, the Holy See granted a plenary indulgence at the parish fair held on the Sunday after September 8th and on January 21st, 1882, a privilege was granted with the indulgence, which takes place on the Sunday after the 16th July. As these documents show, the Holy See not only accepts indulgences at Swarzewo, but also includes them in the "Treasury of the Church". Obtaining these documents had a major impact not only on the growth of pilgrimages, but also contributed to the popularity of the devotion to the Virgin Mary, which had been increasing since the mid-16th century. Pilgrimages to Swarzewo became substantially larger when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea after World War I. One of the most joyous and solemn moments in the history of the Sanctuary of Swarzewo was September 8, 1937. On that day, there was a solemn coronation of Our Lady of Swarzewo as the Queen of the Sea. The decree of Pope Pius XI sent by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, allowing for the coronation of the Swarzewo Virgin bears the date of the 28th August, 1936. In the more recent history of the statue of the Virgin Mary of Swarzewo, the pilgrimage to Gdynia on the 11th June, 1987 to meet the Holy Father is a key date. Placed on a special throne, the Virgin Mary officiated the meeting and Pope John Paul II prayed before her and offered her a gift in the form of a rosary. In his homily to the tens of thousands of faithful gathered at Kosciuszko Square, he said, inter alia, "all of you, your families and all your problems I am putting at the feet of the Mother of Christ, worshipped in many shrines across the Earth, and especially in Sianów and Swarzewo, where for forty years the Polish Queen of the Sea has surrounded you with her care. I am glad that she is here with us at this meeting". The peoples' profound gratitude to the Madonna of Swarzewo is apparent in numerous votive offerings and pilgrimages that continuously take place. Since the nineteenth century, pilgrims have come to two indulgences – on the Sunday after the 16th July and on the Sunday after September 8th. The first indulgence is called Our Lady of Carmel and the other the Virgin Birth of Our Lady of Seeds. Over the years, pilgrimages changed not only their form by adding new and interesting elements, but also the influence of the Sanctuary. The results of research helped also to determine the age and social structure of the pilgrims as well as their motivation to take up a pilgrimage. Surveys conducted during the ceremonies allow us to conclude that the participation of believers in them is mainly due to the manifestation of their affection for the Virgin Mary of Swarzewo. For the residents of nearby villages, Our Lady of Swarzewo is an advocate. They come to her with all their families to pray, participating in indulgences together with the foods of believers. Respondents indicate that regardless of who one is, coming to the shrine in Swarzewo will help one find solace. Often torn hearts, lost thoughts, uncertainty and fear pass at the foot of the Queen. Our Lady watches over life and conduct. She embraces with even greater care. May it last forever, as she lasts in Swarzewo.
Droga św. Jakuba Via Regia – geneza i rozwój (ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem odcinka w województwie podkarpackim)
Autor: Łukasz Mróz
Strony: 73–90
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Origin and development of St. James' Routes on the example of the St. James Route Via Regia in Podkarpackie Province in Poland (SUMMARY) The Royal Route (The High Route) Via Regia was established in the early Middle Ages, leading from Kiev (Ukraine) to Santiago de Compostela in Spain. It was undoubtedly a symbol of culture and religion. Today the Via Regia, being one of the many branches of St. James' Route, the first European Cultural Route, is a significant factor in the economic development of selected regions, as well as a place, which attracts pilgrims and tourists from abroad. St. James' Route, running along the former High Route, was one of the first St. James' Routes in Poland. Since 2007, we have been working to pave St. James' Route Via Regia in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The event that effected the resurgence of pilgrimages to the tomb of St. James, the Apostle of Santiago de Compostela, was a speech by Pope John Paul II, known as the European Act, which he made during His visit on the 9th of November, 1982. The involvement of many individuals associated with the Confraternity of St. James, Association ‘Friends of St. James' Routes in Poland', is constantly nurturing the devotion to St. James in Poland. As a result of various activities and initiatives of local groups, now there are more than 2,700 km of St. James' Routes marked in Poland. Collaborative efforts with Ukraine in marking the Via Regia from Lviv to Kiev are on-going and in the long-term the goal is to pave the Route along its first historic section from Kiev.
Kult św. Michała Archanioła na pograniczu polsko-słowacko-ukraińskim
Autor: Grażyna Holly
Strony: 91–120
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Devotion to St. Michael the Archangel along the Polish–Slovak–Ukrainian border (SUMMARY) The main purpose of the paper is to describe the nature of the devotion to St. Michael the Archangel along the Polish–Slovak–Ukrainian border. The history of the issue was analyzed using several sources of information such as the names of churches, iconographic representations of the saint, and the presence of the saint in coats of arms, names of villages, rural lifestyles and folk traditions. Research has shown that the devotion to St. Michael the Archangel along the Polish–Slovak–Ukrainian border played a major role in the spiritual and cultural life of the local population. The devotion to the saint was a permanent fixture and evolved over the centuries in terms of form and intensity. It was one of the oldest devotions (church in Sanok) and could be found in churches, paintings, coats of arms, traditions, and folk customs. The devotion to St. Michael the Archangel continued to develop regardless of denomination and political changes. For historical reasons, it initially developed most rapidly in the Eastern Church linked with Byzantium. This was particularly true during the era of Russian princes whose patron saint was St. Michael. This explains the presence of St. Michael in the coat of arms of the city of Sanok. Another source of support for the devotion to St. Michael consisted of foundations established by nobles who often belonged to the Latin Church. When settlers began to colonize the mountains in southeastern Poland, nobles began to establish Eastern Orthodox churches in the area and the churches were named after St. Michael the Archangel. One of the main signs of the devotion to St. Michael are the names of churches named after him. The establishment of churches and other holy sites in the 16th century was associated with the arrival of settlers claiming the area based on Wallachian Law. A relatively large number of Eastern Orthodox churches can be found on the Polish side and the Slovak side and fewer on the Ukrainian side. Thirty such churches (25%) were named after St. Michael in the 19th century in the study area. The largest number of churches was found on the Polish side and the Slovak side. The naming of churches after St. Michael was much more common south of the Carpathian Mountains – south of Uzocka Pass. The names of churches associated with angels strongly favored St. Michael the Archangel – also known as the Arch-strategist – the leader of angelic forces fighting Satan and his rebel angels. A unique name for a church – the Council of St. Michael – is found exclusively on the Slovak side. This type of name is associated with a new trend in Byzantium to present St. Michael along with other angels following the victory over iconoclasm. The first Roman Catholic church in the region to adopt the name of St. Michael the Archangel was a parish church in Sanok. The devotion to St. Michael the Archangel in Sanok can be traced back to the 12th century – the era of the Ruthenian Duchy. In art, St. Michael the Archangel is usually presented in a painting and less frequently in the form of a sculpture or wall painting. Iconographic representations usually show him as a messenger or warrior. St. Michael the Archangel was also important to farmers who linked him to the beginning of autumn, harvest, return of sheep from pasture, and the planting of winter crops. The devotion to St. Michael the Archangel is also reflected in coats of arms – city of Sanok – the oldest city in the region.
Krzyże i kapliczki przydrożne Litwy, Łotwy i Polski
Autor: Lucyna Przybylska
Strony: 121–132
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Roadside crosses and chapels in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland (SUMMARY) The purpose of the paper is to describe the distribution of traditional crosses and chapels as well as post-accident crosses along rural roads and in small towns in western Lithuania and Latvia and in northern Poland. The first part of the paper is a review of the Polish and foreign research literature on roadside crosses and chapels. There are no quantitative data on the distribution of crosses and chapels along roads in the Baltic states. The paper fills that gap by analyzing the distribution of crosses and chapels by road type and country. The number of post-accident crosses is higher along national roads than regional roads, which is most likely linked to greater traffic and greater accident probability along national roads. More than 300 km of national and regional roads were analyzed in each country. The basic result is that Polish roads feature far more roadside crosses and chapels than roads in Lithuania and Latvia. In Pomorskie Voivodeship in northern Poland, 54 traditional crosses, 29 post-accident crosses and 25 figurines and chapels were noted along roads. The respective numbers for western Lithuania were 16, 4, and 3. Only 4 post-accident crosses were found in western Latvia. The Baltic states remain divided along 16th century religious lines. Symbols such as roadside crosses, figurines and chapels are characteristic of Poland and Lithuania – both largely Catholic nations. The same is not true of Protestant Latvia.
Szlak Benedykta XVI w Bawarii
Autor: ks. Maciej Ostrowski
Strony: 133–146
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Trail of Benedict XVI in Bavaria (SUMMARY) Shortly after Benedict XVI became pope, his hometown in Bavaria created a bike path called Benedict's Road, which links towns associated with his life. Other memorial sites were also created including monuments and plaques. The paper describes towns associated with Benedict's childhood and teenage years including Marktl am Inn, Tittmoning, Aschau am Inn, Hufschlag, Traunstein, Altöting, Freising, Rauschberg. It also discusses the most important events of his life using commemorative items, which can be found in the towns mentioned above. In addition, the paper suggests printed materials and internet pages that offer more information. The trail is just one example of a growing religious tourism and cultural tourism sector.
Miejsca sakralne w kształtowaniu turystyki masowej – studium wybranych miejsc sakralnych w Grecji
Autor: Marek Ciechowski, Magdalena Rzepa
Strony: 147–159
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Sacred places and mass tourism – case of Greece (SUMMARY) A key contemporary trend in mass tourism is the linkage between recreation and education. In addition to being physically active, pursuing entertainment and adventure, tourists seek out emotional experiences – 3xE tourism model. Sacred sites are unique tourist destinations. The reasons for visiting such sites may be religious in nature or both religious and educational, in which case this is known as religious tourism or extra-religious tourism associated with cultural learning. The active recreation model offers a stark contrast to the passive recreation model known as 3xS (beach model).
Historia i stan obecny chrześcijańskich miejsc pielgrzymkowych Syrii, Jordanii i Libanu
Autor: Małgorzata Flaga
Strony: 161–182
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Christian oases in the Near East – pilgrimage centers in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon: their history and present situation (SUMMARY) In spite of the fact that the Near East is a predominantly Muslim region, it is a popular destination for Christian pilgrims. The region includes numerous sites, which are closely related to Biblical episodes and reflects varied phases of development of the Christian Church. A large number of Christian saints come from the Near East and many outstanding individuals from the Christian world have left their traces there. Syria, Jordan and Lebanon are pilgrimage countries with common historical roots. All three have witnessed significant events and were the home of unique persons from the Christian past. Christian holy sites commemorate certain events and historical figures. On the one hand, they are sites of devotion and worship, and on the other hand, they constitute small enclaves of Christianity in Islamic world. The sanctuaries and other holy sites discussed in the paper possess great value and attract very many pilgrims. They represent centers of devotion with a variety of objects of worship. The first site, known as Betania, is connected mainly with the life of Christ. It is situated in Jordan, on the east bank of the Jordan river. According to early Christian tradition, Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan River at that very site. Syria, which was an area of the missionary activity of St. Paul, features several locations associated with him. The capital of Syria, Damascus, and its environs played a special role in the apostle's life. The paper describes so-called St. Paul's window in the gate of Damascus city walls. The Virgin Mary is revered by Christians in Lebanon in a strong and exceptional way. This is why shrines devoted to the Virgin Mary are quite numerous in the country. Among them, there is one, the most famous one, located in the mountains of Lebanon – the Shrine of Our Lady of Harissa. The Virgin Mary is honored there as the Queen of Lebanon. Two other sites are discussed in the paper. The Sanctuary of Symeon the Stylite in Syria, located in Qala'at Samaan, goes back to the 5th century AD. This ascetic saint achieved renown thanks to his unusual lifestyle. He spent almost 40 years of his life sitting on a stone column, praying and mortifying his body. As in the past, many pilgrims come to visit the place of his eccentric life. The second site discussed is devoted to an equally ascetic person, a Maronite monk from Lebanon – Saint Charbel who lived in the 19th century and died with a reputation for being holy. His relics are deposited in a tomb in the Saint Maron monastery in Annaya and are famous for their healing properties.
Obiekty sakralne przy szlakach turystycznych w obszarze górskim na przykładzie Beskidu Małego
Autor: Justyna Liro
Strony: 183–197
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Sacred sites close to tourist trails in mountain areas – Little Beskids case study (SUMMARY) Sacred sites in mountain areas have been pilgrimage and religious tourism destinations for thousands of years. The same is true of the Polish Carpathians, which serve as attractive places for the establishment of churches, shrines and crosses. In 2011, a total of 170 sacred sites were identified in the study area. Each sacred site is situated close to a tourist trail and has a different shape. There are churches, chapels, home shrines, crosses, box shrines, niche shrines and roadside figures. The most important pilgrimage center is the Sanctuary of Our Lady, the Queen of Mountain Dwellers on the Mountain of John Paul II. These small-scale examples of sacred architecture serve as tourist attractions and may stimulate religious tourism amidst the natural landscapes of the Little Beskids Mountains.
Krakowski Kazimierz w literaturze naukowej. Bibliografia za lata 1989–2011
Autor: Lucyna Korman
Strony: 199–264